Project Quality Management
The Quality Gurus
OUCHI – Theory Z
- Consider the process and the results (not results-only) so that actions to achieve effects are surfaced;
- systemic thinking of the whole process and not just that immediately in view in order to avoid creating problems elsewhere in the process; and
- a learning, non-judgmental, non-blaming approach and intent will allow the re-examination of the assumptions that resulted in the current process.
Kaizen – is a daily activity, the purpose of which goes beyond simple productivity improvement. It is also a process that, when done correctly, humanizes the workplace, eliminates overly hard work and teaches people how to perform experiments on their work using the scientific method and how to learn to spot and eliminate waste in business processes.
People at all levels of an organization can participate in kaizen – also external stakeholders when applicable. It usually involves a small group in improving their own work environment and productivity. This group is often guided through the kaizen process by a line supervisor; sometimes this is the line supervisor’s key role.
Qualitative vs Quantitative Data
Qualitative deals with descriptions. It can be observed but not measured. It includes subjective descriptions including perceptions of good/bad, appearance, textures, smells, tastes, sounds, etc. Qualitative aspects can be observed but not measured. Qualitative can be easily remembered as relational to QUALITY.
Quantitative deals with numbers. It involves things which can be measured in counting, height, area, volume, weight, speed, time, temperature, humidity, sound levels, cost, members, ages, etc. Quantitative can be easily remembered as relational to QUANTITY.
+/- 1 sigma 68.26% (68.3)
+/- 2 sigma 95.46% (95.5)
+/- 3 sigma 99.73% (99.7)
+/- 6 sigma 99.99% (99.99)
Mean, Median & Mode
Median: Sort the values from smallest to largest. If there is an even number of values, the median is the average of the two middle numbers. If there is an odd number of values, the median is the one in the middle of the pack.
Mode: The value that occurs most often.
Another term that often is used along with these is standard deviation, which is represented by the symbol σ and it basically shows how much variation there is from the mean.